AC No:  AC 103-7 
          Date:  1/30/84 
             by:  AFO-820 
      1.   PURPOSE.  This advisory circular provides guidance to the 
      operators of ultralights in the United States.  It discusses the 
      elements which make up the definition of ultralight vehicles for 
      the purposes of operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)
      Part 103.  It also discusses when an ultralight must be operated 
      as an aircraft under the regulations applicable to certificated 
      2.   BACKGROUND. 
           a.  The number of ultralight vehicles and participants in 
      the various aspects of this sport has increased dramatically in 
      recent years.  All indications are that this growth will 
      continue.  The presence of these vehicles in the national 
      airspace has become a factor to be considered in assuring the 
      safety of all users of the airspace. 
           b.  On October 4, 1982, a new regulation (Part 103) 
      applicable to the operation of ultralight vehicles became 
      effective.  This regulation defines those vehicles which may be 
      operated as "ultralight vehicles" and provides operating rules 
      which parallel those applicable to certificated aircraft.  The 
      Federal Aviation Regulations regarding aircraft certification, 
      pilot certification, and aircraft registration are not applicable
      to ultralight vehicles or their operators. 
           c.  Ultralight vehicle operations may only be conducted as 
      sport or recreational activity.  The operators of these vehicles 
      are responsible for assessing the risks involved and assuring 
      their own personal safety.  The rules in Part 103 are intended to 
      assure the safety of those not involved in the sport, including 
      persons and property on the surface and other users of the 
      airspace.  The ultralight community is encouraged to adopt good 
      operating practices and programs in order to avoid more extensive 
      regulation by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). 
      3.   DEFINITIONS.  For the purpose of this advisory circular, the         
       following definitions apply:
           a.  Ultralight Vehicle.  This refers to ultralights meeting 
      the applicability for operations under Part 103. 
           b.  Recognized Technical Standards Committee.  This term 
      refers to a group of at least three persons technically qualified 
      to determine whether a given ultralight meets the requirements 
      for operations under Part 103, as follows: 
                (1)  It is recognized by a national pilot 
      representative organization, 
                (2)  It is comprised of persons not directly associated 
      with the manufacture and/or sale of the make of ultralight being 
      inspected, and 
                (3)  It conducts its review and documents the findings 
      in accordance with the guidance provided in this circular. 
      PART 103? 
           a.  You are Responsible for Your Personal Safety. 
      Certificated aircraft are designed, flight tested, manufactured, 
      maintained, and operated under Federal regulations intended to 
      provide an aircraft of consistent performance, controllability, 
      structural integrity, and maintenance.  An ultralight vehicle is 
      not subject to Federal aircraft certification and maintenance 
      standards.  This means that the costs of purchasing and 
      maintaining an ultralight vehicle may be considerably less than 
      the purchase of a certificated aircraft.  There is no assurance 
      that a particular ultralight vehicle will have consistent 
      performance, controllability, structural integrity, or 
      maintenance.  Your safety, and potentially that of others,
      depends on your adherence to good operation and maintenance 
      practices.  This includes proper preflight techniques, operation 
      of the vehicle within the manufacturer's recommended flight 
      envelope, operation only in safe weather conditions, and 
      providing safety devices in anticipation of emergencies.  Part 
      103 is based on the assumption that any individual who elects to 
      fly an ultralight vehicle has assessed the dangers involved and 
      assumes personal responsibility for his/her safety. 
           b.  You are Limited to Single-Occupant Operations.  Part 103 
      is based on the single-occupant concept; operation by an 
      individual who has assumed all responsibility for his/her 
      personal safety.  Pilots of ultralight vehicles subject to Part           
       103 are not required to have training or previous experience 
      prior to the operation of these vehicles.  You should consider 
      receiving adequate training prior to participation. 
           c.  You are Limited to Recreation and Sport Purposes. 
      Operations for any other purposes are not authorized under the 
      applicability of Part 103.
           d.  You are Limited as Necessary for the Safety of Other 
      Persons and Property.  Part 103 consists of operating rules which 
      were determined necessary for the safety of other users of the 
      airspace and persons on the surface.  These rules were developed 
      in consideration of the capabilities of the vehicles and their 
      pilots.  It is your responsibility to know, understand and comply 
      with these rules.  Ignorance of the regulations pertaining to the 
      activities you pursue is not an acceptable excuse for violating 
      those regulations. 
           e.  You are Responsible for the Future Direction the Federal 
      Government Takes With Respect to Ultralight Vehicles.  The action 
      of the ultralight community will affect the direction Government
      takes in future regulations.  The safety record of ultralight 
      vehicles will be the foremost factor in determining the need for 
      further regulations. 
      5.   FAA CONTACT POINTS.  The FAA will provide clarification of 
      particular subject areas, information, and assistance pertaining 
      to the operations of ultralight vehicles through the following 
           a.  Flight Standards Field Offices.  Flight Standards 
      District Offices (FSDOs), General Aviation District Offices 
      (GADOs), and Manufacturing and Inspection District Offices 
      (MIDOs) are the FAA field offices where information and 
      assistance are available regarding the operation of ultralight 
      vehicles, acceptable methods of complying with Part 103 
      requirements, and compliance with other regulations should it 
      become necessary to operate an ultralight as a certificated 
           b.  Air Traffic Control Facilities.  FAA Air Traffic Control
      facilities are located throughout the United States and maintain 
      jurisdiction over the use of the controlled airspace in their 
      particular area.  To obtain authorization to operate from or into 
      the airspace designated in Section 103.17, contact must be made 
      with the controlling facilities. 
           c.  Flight Service Stations.  These facilities provide               
      operational information to pilots, such as weather briefings, 
      advisory information regarding the status of facilities, etc., 
      and are the most accessible of the FAA points of contact.  They 
      can provide additional information regarding how to reach the 
      other points of contacts mentioned here. 
           d.  Airports District Offices.  These offices inspect
      airports certificated under Part 139 of the FARs to determine 
      whether an airport is safe for public use.  Persons wanting to 
      establish new airports or flight parks, or operate ultralight 
      vehicles from Federally-funded airports, may contact these 
      offices for assistance. 
      6.-9.  RESERVED. 
      10.  SCOPE AND CONTENTS.  This section discusses the elements 
      contained in Section 103.1 which make up the definition of an 
      "ultralight vehicle" and the proper way to assure that Part 103 
      11.  APPLICABILITY OF PART 103. 
           a.  Probably the single most critical determination which 
      must be made is whether or not your vehicle and the operations 
      you have planned are permitted under Part 103.  The fact that you
      are operating a vehicle which is called or advertised as a 
      "powered ultralight," "hang glider," or "hang balloon" is not an 
      assurance that it can be operated as an ultralight vehicle under 
      Part 103.  There are a number of elements contained in Section 
      103.1 which make up the definition of the "ultralight vehicle." 
      If you fail to meet any one of the elements, you may not operate 
      under Part 103.  Any operations conducted without meeting all of 
      the elements are subject to all aircraft certification, pilot 
      certification, equipment requirements, and aircraft operating 
      rules applicable to the particular operation. 
           b.  The FAA realizes that it is possible to design an 
      ultralight which, on paper, meets the requirements of Section 
      103.1, but in reality does not.  However, the designers,
      manufacturers of the kits, and builders are not responsible to 
      the FAA for meeting those requirements.  Operators of ultralights 
      should bear in mind that they are responsible for meeting Section 
      103.1 during each flight.  The FAA will hold the operator of a 
      given flight responsible if it is later determined that the 
      ultralight did not meet the applicability for operations under 
      Part 103.  Be wary of any designs which are advertised as meeting         
      the requirements for use as an ultralight vehicle, yet provide 
      for performance or other design innovations which are not in 
      concert with any element of Section 103.1.  The FAA may inspect 
      any ultralight which appears, by design or performance, to not 
      comply with Section 103.1. 
           c.  If the FAA Determines Your Ultralight Was Not Eligible 
      for Operation as an Ultralight Vehicle.  If your ultralight does 
      not meet Section 103.1, it must be operated in accordance with 
      applicable aircraft regulations.  You will be subject to 
      enforcement action ($1000 civil penalty for each violation) for 
      each operation of that aircraft. 

           a.  Single Occupancy.  An ultralight cannot be operated 
      under Part 103 if there is more than one occupant or if it has 
      provisions for more than one occupant. 
           b.  Sport or Recreational Purposes Only.  An ultralight 
      cannot be operated under Part 103 if it is operated for purposes 
      other than sport or recreation or if it is equipped for other 
           c.  No Airworthiness Certificate.  An ultralight cannot be 
      operated under Part 103 if it has been issued a current U.S. or 
      foreign airworthiness certificate.
           d.  Unpowered Vehicles.  An unpowered ultralight cannot be 
      operated under Part 103 if it weighs 155 pounds or more. 
      Balloons and gliders are unpowered vehicles. 
           e.  Powered Vehicles.  A powered ultralight cannot be 
      operated under Part 103 when it has an empty wight of 254 pounds 
      or more; has a fuel capacity exceeding 5 U.S. gallons; is capable 
      of more than 55 knots airspeed at full power in level flight; and 
      has a power-off stall speed which exceeds 24 knots. 
      13.  SINGLE OCCUPANT. 
           a.  The Rationale for Allowing Single-Occupant Operations 
      Only.  One aspect of the rationale for allowing ultralight 
      vehicles to operate under special rules which do not require 
      pilot and aircraft certification is the single-occupant 
      limitation.  The assumption is made that a person who elects to 
      operate an uncertificated vehicle alone is aware of the risks 
      involved.  This assumption does not necessarily hold true for a
      passenger.  Because the pilot qualifications for ultralight               
      vehicle operations are not Federally controlled or monitored, the 
      single-occupant requirement is a necessary component to the 
      continuation of the policies and regulations which allow the 
      operation of ultralight vehicles free from many of the 
      restrictions imposed on the operation of certificated aircraft. 
           b.  Guidelines Regarding Seating Arrangements Which Should 
      be Considered when Purchasing or Operating an Ultralight Vehicle. 
                (1)  Any provisions for more than one occupant 
      automatically disqualify an ultralight for operations under Part 

                (2)  Some powered ultralights were originally 
      manufactured with bench or "love" seats with only one seatbelt, 
      but have been advertised as two-place in the ultralight 
      periodicals.  They are not eligible for operations under Part 
      103.  While no maximum width standards for the size of a "single" 
      seat have been established at this time, most manufacturers are 
      providing seats which have a width of 18 to 22 inches.  Any seat 
      notably wider than 22 inches raises a question as to whether the 
      ultralight is intended for single occupancy. 
                (3)  An ultralight with provisions for more than one 
      occupant can only be operated as a certificated aircraft, even 
      when occupied by only one person.  In addition to the previously 
      stated aircraft certification and registration requirements, the 
      pilot must hold a medical certificate and at least a student 
      pilot certificate with the proper endorsements for solo 
      operations.  At least one occupant during two-occupant operations 
      must hold at least a private pilot certificate. 
           c.  Two-place Ultralight Operations under Part 103.  The
      AOPA Air Safety Foundation, Experimental Aircraft Association, 
      and the  United States Hang Gliding Association have been granted 
      exemptions from the applicable aircraft regulations to authorize 
      use of two-place ultralights under Part 103 for limited training 
      purposes and for certain hang glider operations.  Except as 
      authorized by exemption, no person may operate an ultralight 
      under Part 103 with more than one occupant. 
           a.  The Rationale for Only Allowing Recreation and Sport 
      Operations Under Part 103.  In combination with the 
      single-occupant requirement, the limitation to recreation and 
      sport operations only is the basis for allowing ultralight
      vehicle operations under minimum regulations.  The reason for 
      allowing the operation of these vehicles without requiring 
      aircraft and pilot certification is that this activity is a 
      "sport" generally conducted away from concentrations of 
      population and aircraft operations. 
           b.  Determining Whether a Particular Operation if for 
      Recreation and Sport Purposes.  There are several considerations 
      that are necessary in determining whether a given operation is 
      conducted for recreation or sport purposes: 
                (1)  Is the flight undertaken to accomplish some task, 
      such as patrolling a fence line or advertising a product?  If so, 
      Part 103 is not applicable. 
                (2)  Is the ultralight equipped with attachments or 
      modifications for the accomplishment of some task, such as banner 
      towing or agricultural spraying?  If so, Part 103 does not apply. 
                (3)  Is the pilot advertising his/her services to
      perform any task using an ultralight?  If so, Part 103 does not 
                (4)  Is the pilot receiving any form of compensation 
      for the performance of a task using an ultralight vehicle?  If 
      so, Part 103 does not apply. 
           c.  Examples of Operations Which are Clearly Not for Sport 
      or Recreational Purposes. 
                (1)  Aerial Advertising.  Part 103 does not apply to 
      operations that include the towing of banners and the use of 
      loudspeakers, programmed light chains, smoke writing, dropping 
      leaflets, and advertising on wings; nor does it apply to the use
      of interchangeable parts with different business advertisements 
      or flying specific patterns to achieve maximum public visibility. 
                (2)  Aerial Application.  Part 103 does not apply to 
      operations that include using an ultralight to perform aerial 
      application of any substance intended for plant nourishment, soil 
      treatment, propagation of plant life or pest control.  An 
      ultralight with an experimental certificate as an amateur 
      aircraft could be used to perform this function under specific, 
      limited circumstances.  Paragraph 35b provides more detail on 
      this subject. 
                (3)  Aerial Surveying and Patrolling.  Patrolling 
      powerlines, waterways, highways, suburbs, etc., does not come 
      under Part 103.  The conduct of these activities in an ultralight  
      must be in compliance with applicable aircraft regulations as 
      outlined in paragraph 34.  Local, state, or Federal government 
      entities may operate an ultralight as a "public aircraft."  This 
      is discussed in greater detail in paragraph 35a. 

                (4)  Carrying parcels for hire. 
           d.  Examples of Situations Involving Money or Some Other 
      Form of Compensation Allowable Under the Recreation and Sport 
                (1)  Rental of Ultralight Vehicles.  Renting an 
      ultralight vehicle to another person is permissible. 
                (2)  Receiving a Purse or Prize.  Persons participating 
      in sport or competitive events involving the use of ultralights 
      are not prohibited from receiving money or some other form of 
      compensation in recognition of their performance. 

                (3)  Authoring Books About Ultralights.  Persons are 
      not prohibited from flying ultralights and then authoring books 
      about their experiences, for which they ultimately receive 
                (4)  Receiving Discount on Purchase of an Ultralight. 
      There is no prohibition which would prevent you from taking 
      advantage of any discount on the price of an ultralight a company 
      might offer where its logo or name appears on a portion of the 
      vehicle.  You cannot, however, enter into any agreement which 
      might specify the location, number, or pattern of flights 
      contingent on the receipt of that discount.  Any operation under 
      such an agreement could not be conducted under Part 103. 
                (5)  Participation in Airshows and Events.  You may 
      participate in airshows and other special events where persons 
      are charged for viewing those events, so long as you receive no 
      compensation for your participation.  This does not hold true 
      where you stand to benefit directly from the proceeds as the 
      organizer or producer of the event.
           a.  If your ultralight has been issued an airworthiness 
      certificate, you cannot operate it as an ultralight vehicle under 
      Part 103.  An ultralight cannot be operated interchangeably as a 
      certificated aircraft and an ultralight vehicle. 
           b.  If you want to operate your ultralight under Part 103, 
       you must turn in, to the issuing authority, any airworthiness 
      certificates currently issued for the craft. 
           c.  You may operate an ultralight as a certificated aircraft 
      if you obtain the proper certification.  If you do not already
      hold an airworthiness certificate, you should consult paragraph 
      31 for further guidance. 
           d.  An ultralight is eligible for operation under Part 103, 
      even where the same make and model is also being issued 
      airworthiness certificates, so long as all elements of the 
      definition of an ultralight vehicle contained in Section 103.1 
      are satisfied.  As an example, assume that there is a model which 
      would meet the definition of an ultralight vehicle being 
      manufactured in Canada and is issued a Canadian airworthiness 
      certificate.  If you purchased one, you would have to turn in the 
      airworthiness certificate to the Canadian authorities before 
      operating it in the United States under Part 103. 
           a.  Unpowered Ultralight Vehicles Eligible for Operation 
      Under Part 103.  All forms of gliders and free balloons weighing 
      less than 155 pounds and meeting all other requirements of 103.1 
      are eligible for operation under Part 103.
           b.  Unpowered ultralights eligible for operations under Part 
      103 are not required to be operated under that Part.  In some 
      cases, you can obtain certification of your glider or free 
      balloon as an experimental aircraft. 
           c.  Computing the Empty Weight of an Unpowered Ultralight 
                (1)  Gliders.  The fuselage, wings, structure, control 
      surfaces, harnesses, and landing gear, etc., are included in this 
      determination.  Parachutes and all personal operating equipment 
      and harnesses associated with their use are not included. 

                (2)  Free Balloons.  The envelope, lines, harnesses, 
      gondola, burner, and fuel tank are included in this 
      determination.  Parachutes and all personal operating equipment 
      and harnesses associated with their use are not included.  The 
      weight of the fuel, in the case of a hot-air balloon, or any 
      logical amount of removable ballast, when intended for control of 
      the buoyancy of a gas balloon, is not included in the weight 
      specified in Section 103.1(d). 
           d.  Free Balloons are Considered "Unpowered."  A balloon, 
      for Part 103 eligibility, is considered an unpowered ultralight, 
      regardless of whether it drops ballast to ascend or uses heated 
      air.  The burner on a hot-air balloon is used to raise the 
      temperature of the air in the envelope allowing the balloon to 
      rise.  This can be compared to the glider's use of lifting air as 
      a means of ascending.  In both cases, no method of horizontal 
      propulsion is employed and a loss of the lifting force will cause 
      the vehicle to descend to the surface. 
           a.  "Powered" Ultralights Eligible For Operation Under Part 
      103.  All ultralights with a means of horizontal propulsion which 
      also meet the provisions of Section 103.1 are eligible; this 
      includes ultralight airships, helicopters, gyrocopters, and 
           b.  A powered ultralight eligible for operation under Part 
      103 is not required to be operated under that Part.  You may 
      elect to certificate and operate it as an experimental aircraft. 
      The applicable procedures and regulations are explained in 
      Advisory Circular 20-27C, Certification and Operation of Amateur- 
      Built Aircraft. 

           a.  Items Excluded From the Computation of the Empty weight 
      of a Powered Ultralight Vehicle. 
                (1)  Safety Devices Which are Intended for Deployment 
      in a Potentially Catastrophic Situation.  Parachutes and some 
      associated additional equipment necessary for their operation 
      meet this criteria.  Other devices, such as seatbelts, roll 
      cages, instruments, or wheel brakes, are considered part of the 
      airframe and are included in the empty weight. 
                     (i)  Up to 24 pounds of weight associated with the 
      parachute system may be excluded by the FAA without requiring a 
      separate weighing of the system components. 
                     (ii)  No weight allowance will be given for any 
      component of the parachute system if, when it was operated, the 
      parachute was not carried and attached to the ultralight at the 
      reinforced points/fittings provided.
                (2)  Floats Used For Landings On Water.  Only the 
      weight of the floats and any integral, external attachment points         
      are excluded.  All other items associated with attachment of the 
      floats to the airframe are included in the vehicle's empty 
      weight.  Up to 30 pounds per float may be excluded by the FAA 
      without requiring substantiation of the float's actual weight. 
      This exclusion was allowed under the rationale that 
      float-equipped ultralights would not usually be operated in the 
      vicinity of airports and large concentrations of people and, 
      thus, would be even less of a safety hazard than those which had 
      conventional landing gear.  While amphibious capability would 
      appear to negate somewhat that rationale, some allowance for the 
      "float" capability is made.
                     (i)  Amphibious Floats.  Up to 30 pounds per float 
      may be excluded by the FAA.  The weight of all attached items 
      associated with the installation and operation of the landing 
      gear is included in the calculation of the dry, empty weight 
      specified in Section 103.1(e)(1).  Satisfactory evidence of the 
      weight of those components must be available. 
                     (ii)  Amphibious Fuselage.  Where the fuselage is 
      intended to function as a float during water landings, up to 30 
      pounds (the average weight of a single float) is allowed by the 
      FAA to be excluded from the empty weight where the ultralight is 
      capable of repeated water takeoffs and landings.  (Operators may 
      be required to demonstrate the water operational capability of 
      their vehicle in order to receive an allowance for the added 
      weight.)  Up to 10 pounds per outrigger float and pylon is also 
      allowed by the FAA. 
                     (iii)  "Float" provisions not discussed here 
      should be reviewed with FAA personnel at a Flight Standards field
           b.  Acceptable Methods for Determining the Weight of an 
      Ultralight.  The completely assembled ultralight should be taken 
      to a draftless location and placed on: 
                (1)  A Single Scale.  A determination may be made on a 
      calibrated scale which has sufficient weighing surface to 
      accommodate the ultralight resting fully on that surface without 
      any stabilizing assistance, or 
                (2)  Two or More Scales.  A determination may be made 
      on two or more calibrated scales if they are located at all 
      points where the ultralight contacts the surface when parked and
      it is resting fully on those scales without any stabilizing 
      assistance.  In this case, the sum of the scales will be used.            
      maximum fuel capacity for a powered ultralight vehicle is 5 U.S. 
      gallons.  Any powered ultralight with fuel tank(s) exceeding this 
      capacity is ineligible for operation as an ultralight vehicle. 
           a.  Determination of Fuel Capacity.  The total volume, 
      including all available space for usable and unusable fuel in the 
      fuel tank or tanks on the vehicle is the total fuel capacity. 
      The fuel in the lines, pump, strainer, and carburetor is not 
      considered in a calculation of total volume. 
           b.  Use of an Artificial Means to Control Capacity. 
                (1)  Tanks which have a permanent standpipe or venting 
      arrangement to control capacity are permitted, but may be subject 
      to demonstration of the capacity if there is any reason to doubt 
      that the arrangement is effective.
                (2)  A temporary, detachable, or voluntarily-observed 
      method for restricting fuel capacity, such as a "fill-to" line, 
      is not acceptable. 
      The maximum speed of an ultralight vehicle at full power in level 
      flight cannot exceed 55 knots. 
           a.  The 55 knots specified in Section 103.1(e)(3) is a 
      performance limitation, not a speed limit.  It is not a speed 
      limit that a pilot has to observe.  The vehicle, as configured 
      (exposed drag areas, engine power output, and propeller 
      efficiency), cannot be capable of driving through the air in
      level flight at full power faster than 55 knots.  It is also not 
      a structural never-exceed speed (Vne).  The vehicle may well be 
      structurally capable of higher airspeeds. 
           b.  The use of "voluntarily observed" or arbitrarily 
      specified maximum airspeeds, such as a red line on the airspeed 
      indicator, is not acceptable where the ultralight is capable of 
      more than 55 knots in level flight. 
           c.  Acceptable Methods of Determining the Maximum Level 
      Flight Airspeed of an Ultralight. 
                (1)  A calculation, using the information in Appendix 
      1, is an acceptable method for making this determination. 
           NOTE:  The engine manufacturer's maximum horsepower rating 
           will be used for all computations associated with maximum            
            level flight speeds (unless the operator can provide 
           documentation from the engine manufacturer that a method of 
           derating an engine will result in a predictable reduction in
                (2)  A series of three or more full-power level runs in 
      both directions along a 1,000-foot course under specified 
      conditions could be used by a recognized technical standards 
      committee to make this determination.  The average speed derived 
      should be adjusted for atmospheric conditions other than sea 
      level on a standard day. 
           NOTE:  While these guidelines contain provisions allowing 
           flight testing to establish eligibility for operations under 
           Part 103, the FAA has provided charts in Appendixes 1 and 2 
           which encompass most normal aircraft design factors without 
           requiring flight testing.  Any flight testing to establish
           eligibility for operations under Part 103 is done at the 
           risk of the participants. 
                (3)  A calibrated radar gun may also be used.  Again, a 
      series of full-power level runs as described in subparagraph c(2) 
      could be used by a recognized technical standards committee to 
      make this determination. 
           d.  Use of an Artificial Means to Limit the Maximum Level 
      Flight Airspeed. 
                (1)  An artificial means of restricting the total power 
      output of an engine in order to lower the maximum level flight 
      speed at full power would be acceptable if the method used to 
      restrict the power available is one which cannot be modified, 
      bypassed, or overridden in flight and the pilot or operator can 
      provide the FAA, on request, satisfactory evidence that the 
      vehicle meets the requirement of Section 103.1(e)(3). 
           NOTE:  Vehicles which require artificial restrictions to
           power or propeller arrangements may incur a substantial 
           penalty in terms of takeoff, climb, and absolute 
           performance.  This factor should be considered when 
           assessing the safety of ultralight vehicle operations, 
           especially at high altitude locations. 
                (2)  As a general guideline, a method is unacceptable 
      if it can be modified, bypassed, or overridden in any way while 
      sitting in the pilot seat so as to further increase the power. 
      There may be some ultralights which could be operated as 
      ultralight vehicles if such restrictions are employed to meet the 
      requirements of Section 103.1(e)(3).  If you change or modify the 
      restricting elements, your vehicle may be ineligible for use 
      under Part 103.
                (3)  The use of voluntarily-observed restrictions, such 
      as a lower power setting, instead of using all available power, 
      is unacceptable. 
           e.  Use of a Less Efficient Propeller/Shaft Arrangement. 
      The use of a less efficient propeller/shaft arrangement to lower 
      the maximum level flight speed at full power is acceptable, if 
      the operator or pilot can provide the FAA, on request, 
      satisfactory evidence that the vehicle meets the requirements of 
      Section 103.1(e)(3).  If you change or modify that arrangement to 
      increase the efficiency, your vehicle may be ineligible for use 
      under Part 103. 
           f.  Use of an Aerodynamic Restriction.  The use of an 
      aerodynamic restriction, such as a limiting device to pitch 
      control travel on a canard arrangement, automatically deployed 
      speed brakes, or a strut installed for drag purposes only, is 
      acceptable, provided a recognized technical standards committee 
      has evaluated the resulting maximum full-power level flight
      speeds at a pilot weight of 170 pounds and determined that the 
      vehicle is not capable of maintaining level flight above 55 
      knots.  (Again, modification of that arrangement may render the 
      vehicle ineligible for use under Part 103.) 
           NOTE:  Vehicles using aerodynamic restrictions to limit 
           maximum speed may have undesirable flight characteristics 
           when operated near the controllability limits. 
      VEHICLE.  The maximum power-off stall speed of an ultralight 
      vehicle cannot exceed 24 knots (28 mph). 
           a.  Acceptable Methods of Determining the Power-Off Stall
      Speed of an Ultralight Vehicle. 
                (1)  A calculation, using the information provided in 
      Appendix 2, is an acceptable method of providing satisfactory 
      evidence that your vehicle meets this requirement. 
           NOTE:  For the purpose of all stall speed calculations, the 
           pilot's weight will be considered to be 170 pounds and the 
           fuel tank(s) filled (6 lbs./gal.). 
                (2)  This speed can also be determined by a recognized 
      technical standards committee which can take the average speed 
      from a series of power-off stalls using existing flight test 
           b.  Use of High-Lift Devices to Lower Stall Speed to 24 
      Knots.  Slots, slats, flaps, and any other devices which would 
      lower the stall speed are acceptable.  A determination of the 
      resulting average stall speed by a technical standards committee 
      is acceptable evidence of compliance.
      If an ultralight is found by a recognized technical standards 
      committee to meet the requirements of Section 103.1 with respect 
      to the items specified in paragraphs 18 through 21, the committee 
      should issue a document confirming its findings.  (See Appendix 4 
      for an example of this documentation.) 
      23.  CONTENTS OF THE DOCUMENT.  To be acceptable, the document 
      will contain, as a minimum, the: 
           a.  Name and address of the person requesting the 

           b.  Type/model and general description of the ultralight, 
      including any installed equipment. 
           c.  Empty weight of the ultralight, showing the allowances 
      given for parachutes, floats, and fuel, and how it was 
           d.  Fuel capacity and how it was determined. 
           e.  Maximum speed at full power in level flight and how it 
      was determined, including a description of any method 
      incorporated to limit the power or thrust output or the ability 
      of the vehicle to fly in level flight at more than 55 knots. 
      (This description should allow an inspector reviewing the 
      document to determine that the limiting devices are still 
           f.  Maximum power-off stall speed and how it was determined, 
      including a description of any lift devices used. 

           g.  Typed or printed names of the committee members, their 
      signatures, and the name of the organization which recognizes 
      their committee. 
      24.  CONTACTS WITH FAA INSPECTORS.  Most ultralight operators 
      will probably only encounter FAA field inspectors during 
      accident, incident, or public complaint investigation.  On 
      initial contact, the inspector will usually ask for your pilot 
      certificate and the aircraft airworthiness certificate.  You 
      should inform the inspector that you are operating your 
      ultralight under Part 103 and provide evidence that it meets the 
      applicability of Section 103.1. 
           a.  Failure to Provide Satisfactory Evidence.  If you cannot
      provide this evidence, or if the evidence provided is not 
      satisfactory, your ultralight will be considered an aircraft 
      subject to all applicable aircraft regulations and you will be 
      subject to all requirements applicable to the operator.  It is 
      your responsibility to prove that your ultralight and any 
      operations you may have conducted meet the applicability for 
      operation under Part 103.  Until you do, the FAA will proceed 
      with any enforcement investigation resulting from your inability 
      to provide that proof. 
           b.  "Satisfactory Evidence." 
                (1)  The use of the graphs provided in Appendixes 1 and 
      2 will be acceptable for determination of the maximum level 
      flight speed and power-off stall speed if your ultralight has no 
      special limitations to maximum speed or power and no special 
      high-lift devices. 
                (2)  An FAA-certificated aircraft mechanic or repair 
      station may also weigh your ultralight and provide a weight
      document similar to that provided for aircraft, listing the 
      components and attachments of the ultralight when weighed.  An 
      FAA-certificated mechanic may also make the determinations in 
      paragraphs 18 through 21 and issue the documentation outlined in 
      paragraph 23, provided that the maximum speeds were determined 
      through the use of the graphs provided in Appendixes 1 and 2. 
                (3)  A recognized technical standards committee's 
      findings documented as provided in paragraph 23 will usually be 
      considered acceptable.  A committee may issue their findings in 
      relation to a given model of ultralight which are then included 
      by the manufacturer in the sale of the ultralight.  The 
      subsequent operators of that model of ultralight may use those 
      findings without having another inspection made, provided that
      there are no changes or modifications to the configuration, 
      components, engine, or propeller arrangements of the basic model 
      originally reviewed by the committee and any artificial means of 
      restricting maximum airspeed is installed and operational. 

           c.  FAA Ultralight Inspection Authority.  The FAA has the 
      legal authority to inspect any ultralight, whether it is operated 
      as an aircraft under Part 91 or as an ultralight vehicle under 
      Part 103.  In the case of an ultralight operated under Part 103, 
      this authority will usually be exercised only when an inspector 
      has reason to doubt the validity of the evidence provided by the 
      operator or that the ultralight still conforms to the findings 
      contained in that evidence. 
                (1)  Refusal to Allow the Inspection.  Refusal to allow 
      the inspector to inspect the ultralight would be a violation of 
      the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended, and the applicable 
      FAR, and would result in enforcement action. 
                (2)  Usual Content of the Inspection.  The inspector
      may ask you to show compliance with Section 103.1 by measuring 
      the capacity of the fuel tank, weighing the vehicle, measuring 
      the wing, stabilizing and control surface areas, and showing that 
      any artificial means required to restrict the maximum airspeed 
      are installed, operational, and cannot be bypassed.  Further 
      checks may be made in situations where the inspector has reason 
      to doubt the effectiveness of any restriction to maximum 
      25.-29.  RESERVED. 
                        AN ULTRALIGHT AS AN AIRCRAFT 

      30.  SCOPE AND CONTENTS.  This section outlines the regulations 
      which are applicable to the operation of ultralights as 
      certificated aircraft and provides general information regarding 
      how to comply with the regulations. 
      31.  AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION.  A person who chooses to operate an 
      ultralight as a certificated aircraft has two options for 
      airworthiness certification of the vehicle, depending primarily 
      on the configuration of the vehicle or kit when purchased, as 
           a.  Completely Assembled at the Factory, or Assembled by the 
      Purchaser From a "Bolt-Together" Kit With Little or No 
      Fabrication Operations.  An ultralight in this category would be 
      eligible for airworthiness certification only for the purpose of 
      exhibition in the experimental classification.  Application for 
      an experimental certificate for exhibition may be made to the 
      nearest Flight Standards field office. 
           b.  Major Portion (Over 50%) Fabricated by the
      Builder/Purchaser, Either from Raw Materials to the Builder's Own 
      Design or From a Partially Prefabricated Kit.  A vehicle shown to 
      meet the provisions of this category would be eligible for 
      airworthiness certification as an amateur-built aircraft, in 
      addition to eligibility for experimental exhibition.  Detailed 
      information pertaining to amateur-built aircraft requirements are 
      in FAA Advisory Circular 20-27C, Certification and Operation of 
      Amateur-Built Aircraft.  Applications for such certification may 
      be made to the nearest Flight Standards field office. 
      32.  REGISTRATION.  An ultralight that is to be certificated and 
      operated as an aircraft is subject to the registration and 
      marking requirements applicable to aircraft.  The applicant 
      should contact the nearest Flight Standards field office to
      obtain the required forms and information concerning the 
      procedures to be followed.  Advisory Circular 20-27C also 
      contains information concerning registration and marking 
      requirements as they apply to amateur-built aircraft. 
      Part 61 of the Federal Aviation Regulations contains the 
      regulations which define the certificates and ratings which 
      pilots must hold to function as a pilot of a certificated 
      aircraft in the United States.  It also outlines the minimum 
      experience levels and standards to qualify for those certificates 
      and ratings.  The minimum levels of pilot currency for certain 
      operations are also contained in Part 61. 
      contains the general operating rules (Subpart A), flight rules 
      (Subpart B), and maintenance rules (Subpart C) which are 
      applicable to all certificated aircraft operations.  Pilots of 
      certificated ultralight aircraft must comply with Part 91.  No 
      certificated aircraft can be operated under Part 103.  The flight
      rules of Subpart B are the minimum standards for flight 
      operations except where the operating limitations of the 
      particular aircraft establish more stringent standards.  The 
      majority of the rules contained in Subpart A and Subpart C will 
      not apply to operations of certificated ultralight aircraft; 
      however, a thorough review of these regulations should be 
      conducted to determine those applicable to a particular type of 
      ultralight aircraft. 
      35.  SPECIAL FLIGHT OPERATIONS.  There are some special 
      operations of ultralight aircraft that are allowed under present 

           a.  "Public" Aircraft.  An ultralight may be used
      exclusively in the service of a Federal, state, or local 
      government without an airworthiness certificate.  (The pilots do 
      not have to hold pilot certificates.) 
                (1)  The ultralight must be properly registered with 
      the FAA and display appropriate registration markings, and 
                (2)  All operations must be conducted in accordance 
      with the applicable operating and flight rules of Part 91. 
           b.  Aerial Agricultural Application.  A farmer owning an 
      amateur-built experimentally certificated aircraft may use that 
      aircraft for aerial agricultural applications over his/her own 
      property, provided that, 
                (1)  The ultralight is certificated as an amateur- 
      built aircraft and does not have any operating limitations 
      prohibiting agricultural operations; 
                (2)  The pilot holds at least a private pilot
      certificate and successfully completes a knowledge and skill test 
      as specified in Section 137.19(e); and 
                (3)  The farmer holds at least a Private Agricultural 
      Operator Certificate under Part 137 and all operations are 
      conducted in accordance with that regulation. 
      36.-50.  RESERVED. 
      /s/ Kenneth S. Hunt 
          Director of Flight Operations

                             AIRSPEED OF ULTRALIGHTS. 
      The information contained in this appendix is intended to assist 
      in a determination of an ultralight's capability to comply with 
      Section 103.1(e)(3).  The maximum speed of an ultralight as 
      computed with this information may be accepted as a portion of 
      the "satisfactory evidence" specified in Section 103.3(b).  When 
      using this information, no additional drag factors should be 
      considered and no extra value should be given any of the factors 
      provided.  There is already a "cushion" built into the 
      computation to account for the factors affecting the maximum 
      speed capability of an ultralight.  No drag-producing element 
      should be counted under more than one drag factor category. 
      STEP ONE - Compute the total drag factor (See page 2 for further 
      breakdown of the values assigned to each category.) 

      1.   Pilot Drag Factor (Select one).................._______ 
           * Not Enclosed 
            - prone.................................. 1.2 
            - supine................................. 4.5 
            - seated upright......................... 5.5 
           * Partially Enclosed 
            - lower half of body enclosed............ 3.5 
            - only head exposed...................... 2.5 
            - streamlined, head behind windshield.... 2.0 
           * Totally Enclosed 
            - streamlined fuselage................... 1.5 
            - boxy fuselage.......................... 2.0 

      2.   Wing Drag Factor (total square feet of upper 
            surface = ______ x 0.01)......................._______ 
      3.   Stabilizing & Control Surface Drag Factor (total square feet 
            of one side of each surface = _____ x 0.014)..._______ 
      4.   Exposed Wire Drag Factor (total wires over 4 feet long and 
            45 to 90 degrees to airflow = _____ x 0.05)...._______ 
      5.   Exposed Struts Drag Factor (total struts over 4 feet long 
            and 45 to 90 degrees to airflow excluding those associated 
            with landing gear = _____ x 0.4).............._______ 
      6.   Landing Gear Drag Factor (includes associated 
            * Faired, fixed gear (number of wheels = _____ x 0.3) 
            * Unfaired, fixed gear (number of wheels = _____ x 0.5) 
      7.   Engine Drag Factor (select one)................._______ 
            * completely exposed = 2.5
            * partially exposed = 1.5 
            * some components exposed = 0.5 
      8.   SUBTOTAL ABOVE DRAG FACTORS........................._______ 
      10.  Allowance for Induced and Interference Drag (multiply 
            subtotal of drag factors _____ x .20)............._______ 
      11.  COMPUTED TOTAL DRAG FACTORS (add items 9 and 10)...._______ 
                                             PROCEED TO CHART ON PAGE 3 

      1.  Pilot drag factors.  "Supine" is a sitting position with the 
      legs extended forward, nearly in line with the lower part of the 
      body.  "Seated upright" is a sitting position where the lower 
      legs extend downward.  "Only head exposed" includes all semi or 
      fully streamlined vehicles having a small windshield which does 
      not deflect the airflow away from the pilot's face. 
      "Streamlined, head behind windshield" includes those ultralights 
      which, from a viewing position in front of the vehicle, the 
      pilot's body is not exposed to the airflow.  Where a two-place 
      vehicle is being operated under an exemption, side-by-side 
      seating doubles the factor for the fully-exposed groupings and 
      the "lower half of body enclosed" category.  No additional credit 
      is given for the other categories under partially or fully 
      exposed.  Also, no additional credit is given to tandem 
      2.  Wing drag.  This includes all horizontal flying surfaces, 
      including canards (but excluding any other stabilizing or control
      surface).  The total square feet of upper surface of the wing, as 
      determined from a manufacturer's specification or through rough 
      measurement (length x width) is used in this calculation. 
      3.  Stabilizing and control surface drag.  This includes 
      horizontal and vertical stabilizers, rudders, elevators, and 
      ailerons.  The total square feet of exposed surfaces (one side 
      only) is used in this calculation. 
      4.  Exposed wire and strut drag.  The number of wires or struts, 
      not associated with the landing gear, which are OVER 4 FEET LONG 
      with an angle of 45 to 90 DEGREES TO THE AIRFLOW are counted and 
      multiplied times the given values.  Those wires and/or struts 
      located behind the pilot/engine/wing (usually making up portions
      of the rear fuselage or empenage) are not counted.  Wires or 
      struts located parallel to and behind other wires or struts in 
      the airflow are not counted if they do not flare uniformally away 
      from any common attaching point, achieving a minimum separation 
      of at least 8 inches. 
      5.  "Fixed landing gear drag.  Regardless of size of wheels or 
      length of struts, the values shown in the chart are applicable. 
      "Faired" wheels are those which have one-third or more of the 
      wheel surface covered in the front and on the sides. 
      6.  Engine drag.  Engines in front of the wing without fairing 
      and those in back, which protrude noticeably into the airflow 
      above or below the wing, are considered completely exposed. 
      Those with streamlined fairings not located in the fuselage or 
      behind a semi streamlined pilot cockpit are considered partially 
      exposed.  Faired engines positioned in the front or rear of a 
      fully streamlined fuselage with components such as air filters 
      and mufflers exposed are treated under "some components exposed." 
      Faired or unfaired engines located in the turbulent area directly
      behind the pilot's body or the vehicle's fuselage are also 
      considered under this grouping. 
      STEP TWO - Determine the maximum airspeed of the vehicle through 
      the use of the chart below. 
           1.   Enter the bottom of the chart at the engine 
                manufacturer's maximum horsepower rating of the 
                installed engine.  (Example:  45 horsepower). 
           2.   Proceed directly up the horsepower line until 
                encountering the total drag factor curve computed for
                the ultralight (Example:  15). 
           3.   Note horizontal line which also intersects at that 
                point, proceed to the left along that line to the edge 
                of the graph, read maximum airspeed (Example:  53.5). 
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDED 

                            OF ULTRALIGHTS 
      The information contained in this appendix is intended to assist 
      in a determination of an ultralight's ability to comply with 
      Section 103.1(e)(2), a maximum power-off stall speed which does 
      not exceed 24 knots.  Computations made in accordance with the 
      information provided may be accepted as satisfactory evidence of
      compliance.  When using this information, no factors other than 
      those provided here should be considered.  (The values provided 
      here are for relatively square, rectangular wings; they are not 
      valid for noticeably swept or tapered wings.)  Relevant 
      considerations for this computation are: 

      1.  Empty weight.  The dry empty weight of the vehicle (excluding 
      floats and/or parachutes), as established through some form of 
      evidence satisfactory to the inspector, should be used. 
      2.  Pilot weight.  The pilot's weight will be assumed to be 170 
      pounds.  In the event that an ultralight is being operated under 
      exemption allowing two-occupant operations, the pilots' weight 
      will be assumed to be 340 pounds.
      3.  Fuel weight.  The weight of the fuel (6 pounds per gallon) is 
      included and for the purpose of this computation will be assumed 
      to be filled to capacity. 
      4.  Wing area.  The total wing area (square feet) should be 
      determined.  Ailerons and flaps may be included, but canards 
      (which generally have a higher stall speed than the main wing) 
      are excluded. 
      STEP ONE - Add the weight factors. 
                                   Example:  Empty weight......240 lbs. 
                                             Pilot weight......170 lbs. 
                                             Fuel weight........30 lbs. 
                                                               440 lbs. 
      STEP TWO - Divide the total weight by the total wing area to 
      obtain the wing loading of the vehicle. 
                        Example:    Weight   = 440
                                  Wing Area  = 151 = 2.9 (Wing Loading) 
      STEP THREE - Select, from the wing profiles provided below, the 
      lift factor which applies to the ultralight in question. 
           Lift Factor     Wing Profile       Wing Description 
             1.4                              Single/double surface 
                                              with camber of less than 
                                              7 percent (see Appendix 
                                              3) and all symmetrical 
                                              and semi symmetrical 
                                              airfoils without flaps,
                                              regardless of camber. 
             1.6                              Relatively flat-bottom, 
                                              double surface wings with 
                                              camber of 7 percent or 
             1.8                              Single surface with 
                                              camber of 7 percent or 
                                              more or double surface 
                                              with flaps extending up 
                                              to 50 percent of the 
                                              total wingspan. 
             2.0                              Double surface with flaps 
                                              extending more than 50 
                                              percent of total 
      STEP FOUR - Determine the power-off stall speed of the ultralight
      through the use of the chart below. 
           1.   Enter the bottom of the chart at the computed wing 
                loading of the ultralight (Example:  2.9). 
           2.   Proceed straight up the wing-loading line to the point 
                where it intersects the applicable lift factor curve 
                (Example:  1.6). 
           3.   Note horizontal line which also intersects at that 
                point, proceed to the left side of the chart via that 
                line.  Read power-off stall speed (Example:  23.2
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDED 
           NOTE:     If your computed wing-loading point is lower than 
                     the applicable lift factor line at the base of the 
                     chart, the stall speed would be lower than 
                     provided on the chart. 

                              CAMBER OF A WING. 
      Relevant considerations for this computation are: 
      1.  Chord or chord line - an imaginary straight line joining the 
      extremities of the leading edge and the trailing edge.  For the 
      purpose of this computation, this imaginary line will be measured
      midway between the tip of the wing and the wing root. 
      2.  Camber - the curvature of a wing.  For the purpose of this 
      computation, only the camber of the upper surface (above the 
      chord line) of the wing is considered. 
      STEP ONE - Determine the mid-point of the wing and measure the 
      mean chord line. 
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDED 
      STEP TWO - At the mid-point of the wing, determine the chord line
      horizontal position on the airfoil profile (assuming straight 
      line from the extreme forward point on the leading edge to the 
      extreme rearward point of the trailing edge). 
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDED 
      STEP THREE - Measure the distance from the chord line to the 
      highest point of camber on the upper surface. 
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDED 
      STEP FOUR - Divide the measurement obtained in step one into the 
      measurement obtained in step three. 
           Example:  Upper surface camber    =   8 inches 
                     Mean chord line length  = 100 inches = 8% camber 

                        STANDARDS COMMITTEE FINDINGS 
           (INSTRUCTIONS:  Complete all blanks; insert N/A in blanks 
           not applicable to this particular review; check off other 
           applicable items (x) as provided.) 
      ISSUED TO: ____________________ ULTRALIGHT 
      ADDRESS:   ____________________  MAKE/MODEL:    ________________ 
                 ____________________ SERIAL NUMBER:  ________________ 
        							NUMBER:        ________________ 
      ENGINE MAKE/MODEL: ____________ PROPELLER 
      ENGINE MANUFACTURER'S            MAKE/MODEL:    ________________ 
        RATED HORSEPOWER: ___________ PROPELLER 
                                          DIAMETER:   _________________ 
                                     PROPELLER PITCH: ______________ 
      FUEL       fuselage 
      CAPACITY:  tank _____ wing tank _____ other _____ TOTAL: _____ 
      -GROSS EMPTY WEIGHT......................................________ 
        - Exclusion for parachute system weight.......______ 
           ( ) hand-deployed 
           ( ) ballistically deployed 
           ( ) installed and operational 
           ( ) standard allowance weight given 
           ( ) parachute system weighed separately 
        - Exclusion for floats........................______ 
           ( ) weighed in landplane configuration only
           ( ) weighed in floatplane configuration only 
           ( ) standard allowance for floats-only given 
           ( ) standard allowance for amphib floats given 
           ( ) standard allowance for amphib fuselage given 
           ( ) standard allowance for outrigger floats given 
           ( ) all floats weighed separately 
                FLOAT MAKE/MODEL:  __________________ 
        - Fuel on board at weighing...................______ 
      TOTAL WEIGHT ALLOWANCES........................______ 
      NET EMPTY WEIGHT (minus weight allowances)..............________ 
        MAXIMUM FULL-POWER LEVEL FLIGHT SPEED (calculated by AC 103-7, 
      Appendix 1).........................................________ 
       ( ) engine manufacturer maximum rated horsepower used
       ( ) derated horsepower of engine = _____, per engine 
      manufacturer's specs 
       ( ) timed (average of a series of three level runs in both 
       ( ) radar gun (average series of level runs per timed 
       ( ) speed adjusted to sea level conditions 
       ( ) artificial restriction ( ) power ( ) propeller 
            ( ) aerodynamic 
      DESCRIPTION OF RESTRICTION (should be included on the back of 
       this form in sufficient written and graphic detail for an FAA 
       inspector or other qualified person to ascertain that the 
       restriction is in place and operational)
       MAXIMUM POWER-OFF STALL SPEED (calculated AC 103-7, Appendix 
         operating weight used = ______ maximum coefficient of lift 
           used = ______ 
      DEMONSTRATED POWER-OFF STALL SPEED......................________
       ( ) average of six or more stalls (in level flight, with an 
           airspeed reduction of approximately one knot per second 
           until stall occurs 
       ( ) high lift devices installed ( ) flaps ( ) slots ( ) other 
        ( ) provisions for one occupant only 
             ( ) seat width 22 inches or less (inside measurement) 
             ( ) single seatbelt/shoulder harness 
             ( ) single controls located logically for a person 
                 sitting in the center of the seat 
        ( ) no equipment is installed which could logically be 
            construed as for a purpose other than sport/recreation of 
            the operator, such as:
             ( ) towing hitches 
             ( ) agricultural equipment 
             ( ) advertisement on the wings 
        ( ) no U.S. or foreign airworthiness certificate is currently 
            issued to this particular ultralight unit 
        ( ) this ultralight has not been registered with the U.S. 
            federal government 
       ISSUED BY: 

       ( ) A & P Mechanic; Name __________________ Certificate 
                           Number ________________ 

       DATE OF ISSUANCE OF THIS DOCUMENT: __________________