AC No:  103-6 
          Date:  6/23/83 
            by:  AAT-230 
                 CONTROL, AND WEATHER 
      1.   PURPOSE.  This advisory circular provides guidance for the 
      operation of ultralight vehicles in the United States. 
      Information includes airport and flightpark operations, how to 
      work with air traffic control, and the availability of weather 
      services.  Additional advisory circulars for the operation of 
      ultralight vehicles may be found under series 103. 
      2.   BACKGROUND. 
           a.   The sport of hang gliding has advanced dramatically 
      since the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) first issued 
      Advisory Circular No. 60-10, "Recommended Safety Parameters for 
      the Operation of Hang Gliders," on May 16, 1974.  The purpose of 
      that advisory circular was to provide guidance to the hang 
      gliding community without the need for Federal regulation.  The 
      response to the guidelines of the advisory circular was 
      excellent, and for the period immediately following its issuance 
      many of its safety goals were maintained.  But, as the sport 
      advanced, the performance capabilities and popularity of these 
      vehicles increased.  Many unpowered gliders became capable of 
      soaring to altitudes more than 10,000 feet above the launch 
      point, and flight distances could exceed 100 miles.  The addition 
      of powerplants and controllable aerodynamic surfaces created 
      vehicles which approximate the operational capabilities of fixed- 
      wing aircraft.  And with the greatly increased number of these 
      vehicles, the operation of ultralight vehicles became a 
      significant factor in aviation safety. 
           b.   On October 4, 1982, a new Federal Aviation Regulation, 
      Part 103, became effective and provided for the safe integration 
      of ultralight vehicle operations into the National Airspace 
      System.  In conjunction with Part 103, the ultralight community 
      is being encouraged to adopt good operating practices.  This 
      advisory circular is intended to assist the ultralight operator 
      in attaining that goal. 
      Comments and questions concerning information contained in this 
      advisory circular should be directed to Federal Aviation 
      Administration, Airspace and Air Traffic Rules Branch (AAT-230), 
      800 Independence Avenue S.W., Washington, D.C. 20591. 
           a.   Chapter 1.  Airports and Ultralight Flightparks. 
      Includes information about where to takeoff and land, the 
      operation of a flightpark, and environmental considerations. 
           b.   Chapter 2.  Air Traffic Control and Radio 
      Communications.  Describes airspace areas, operations at airports 
      with and without our control towers, and use of a two-way radio. 
           c.   Chapter 3.  Weather Information.  Sources of weather 
      information, and an introduction to micro-meteorology. 
           d.   Chapter 4.  Accident Information and Other Sources. 
      What to do if you witness or are involved in an accident.  Also, 
      where to go and what to do if you need additional information on 
      the operation of your ultralight. 
      4. - 9.   RESERVED. 
      10.  WHERE TO TAKEOFF AND LAND.    One of the questions most 
      frequently asked by the ultralight pilot is, "Where can I safely 
      and legally takeoff and land my ultralight?"  The following 
      information is designed to assist the ultralight pilot in 
      understanding the different types of operations, both on and off 
      airport, and the recommended procedures for obtaining permission 
      to operate ultralight vehicles. 
           a.   Existing airports.  Currently, there are approximately 
      16,000 public use and private airports and seaplane bases in the 
      United States.  The vast majority of these facilities may be 
      suitable and compatible for safe ultralight operations. 
      Information on their location may be obtained from various 
      sources, such as FAA publications (i.e., Airport/Facility 
      Directory, aeronautical charts, etc.) which may be purchased at 
      most local airports.  Also, user organizations have comprehensive 
      airport listings which usually include a description of the 

      Items to Consider 
                (1)  Some of these airports have their air traffic 
      directly controlled by an air traffic control tower.  Use of 
      these airports requires prior permission of airport management 
      and the local air traffic control authority (see FAR Part 
      103.17).  Since the volume of aircraft operating at these 
      airports is usually significantly higher, ultralight operators 
      may find operations at these airports to be less desirable than 
      operations at uncontrolled airports. 
                (2)  There are many airports where air traffic is not 
      controlled by an air traffic control tower and the traffic 
      activity level is usually low.  These airports are referred to as 
      "uncontrolled airports."  Use of these airports by ultralight 
      vehicles may require prior permission of the airport operator. 
      When seeking access to these airports, ultralight operators 
      should remember that even though the airport may be tax 
      supported, airport management has the responsibility for 
      determining the compatibility of operating the various classes of 
      aircraft on the airport.  If an ultralight can be safely operated 
      at the airport, then permission to operate the ultralight vehicle 
      may be granted.  Safety of aircraft operations on the airport is 
      always the prime consideration. 
           b.   Abandoned Airports.  Since 1970, approximately 3,000 
      airports have been abandoned because of a lack of activity, 
      financial problems, or other related reasons.  The majority of 
      these airports are located in rural areas, privately owned, and 
      possibly well-suited for ultralight training and other 
      activities.  Many state aeronautical organizations have knowledge 
      of recently abandoned facilities and should be able to assist you 
      in finding these sites.  It may be possible to obtain permission 
      of the property owner to reactivate certain of these facilities 
      for ultralight operations. 
           c.   Open Space Operating Areas.  One of the prime 
      advantages of ultralight operation is the vehicle's ability to 
      operate in small areas.  FAR Part 103 does not prohibit 
      ultralight takeoff and landing from open areas, providing the 
      operation  does not overfly congested areas.  Good judgement 
      still dictates that an ultralight pilot obtain prior permission 
      from the landowner and be familiar with the terrain and 
      obstructions at any location where operations are intended.  For 
      the operation of hang gliders, special consideration should be 
      given to the terrain surrounding the launch site.  In many cases 
      these terrain features will influence the ability of the 
      unpowered craft to return to the launch site. 
      11.  OPERATION OF A FLIGHTPARK.  Anyone wishing to establish a 
      site for the operation of ultralight vehicles should be aware of 
      the following Federal, state, and local regulatory requirements 
      which may apply to these operations: 
           a.   Federal Requirements.  Unless the site is to be used 
      solely in VFR weather conditions for a period of less than 30 
      consecutive days with no more than 10 operations per day during 
      this period, notification of the intent to establish a flight 
      park is required under the provisions of FAR Part 157, 
      Notification of Construction, Alteration, Activation, and 
      Deactivation of Airports.  FAA Form 7480-1, which is used to 
      provide this notice (as well as guidance in its preparation) is 
      available from any FAA regional Airports Division or Airports 
      District/Field Office.  The FAA uses the information provided in 
      the notice to advise on the effect of the establishment of the 
      site on the use of navigable airspace by aircraft.  Advisory 
      Circular 70-2, Airspace Utilization Considerations in the 
      Proposed Construction, Alteration, Activation and Deactivation of 
      Airports, describes some of the factors which affect airspace 
      utilization.  Failure to provide the required notice violates 
      Section 901 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 and carries a 
      possible civil penalty. 
           b.   State Requirements.  Many state aviation departments 
      require approval and a license for the establishment of a site 
      for aeronautical operations.  The potential ultralight flightpark 
      developer should contact the state aviation authorities to 
      determine state requirements. 
           c.   Local Requirements.  Most communities have established 
      zoning laws, building codes, fire regulations, and other legal 
      requirements to provide for the safety and comfort of the 
      citizenry.  A thorough study of these requirements should be made 
      to determine their effect on the establishment and operation of 
      an ultralight flightpark. 
      standards for the geometric design of an airport built to 
      exclusively serve ultralight vehicles.  However, several 
      ultralight organizations provide information which may be useful 
      for the establishment of an ultralight flightpark as a separate 
      entity.  FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-4B, Utility Airports - 
      Air Access to National Transportation, intended for airports 
      serving aircraft with approach speeds less than 121 knots, 
      provides guidance which may also be helpful in developing an 
      operational site for ultralight aircraft. 
      13.  NOISE CONSIDERATIONS.  Perhaps the most limiting factor in 
      the operation of ultralights is the noise emitted from the 
      vehicle.  Unless proper measures are taken in the design and 
      operation of ultralights, public annoyance to the noise may 
      result in restrictive local and state regulations.  Acceptance by 
      the public of recreational sport flying is significantly tied to 
      the potential for annoyance from the vehicle's noise. 
           a.   Significant progress has been made by ultralight 
      manufacturers to quiet engine, exhaust, and propeller noises.  As 
      these systems continue to improve, so will the acceptance of the 
      ultralight vehicle.  However, these improvements are only half of 
      the story.  Ultralight operation in a manner sensitive to the 
      possible annoyance of those on the ground is the other.  It is 
      probably the most important factor in gaining acceptance by the 
      general public. 
           b.   Airport owners/operators have been trying for years to 
      establish operations compatible with the needs of adjacent 
      communities.  The acceptance of ultralight operations by a 
      community will depend in a large part on its perception of how 
      additional operations by ultralights will affect the airport's 
      overall compatibility with its neighbors.  Careful planning by 
      ultralight operators in integrating their vehicles into the 
      existing operation will go a long way in making acceptance a 
           c.   The FAA has begun ultralight noise testing. 
      Preliminary results indicate that, in absolute noise levels, the 
      ultralight is no louder at 1,000 feet AGL than some popular two 
      seat single engine aircraft.  The slower speed of the ultralight 
      does result in longer periods of exposure to noise and is a 
      significant factor in the annoyance perceived from such 
      overflight.  Another consideration is the lower altitude at which 
      many ultralight operations take place.  This causes an increase 
      in the intensity of sound during fly-over and is a significant 
      factor in determining the annoyance cause by noise. 
           d.   FAR Part 103 prohibits operations of ultralights over 
      congested areas.  Ultralight pilots should be aware that, while 
      their vehicles may not be operating directly over congested 
      areas, their vehicles' noise may carry to the residents of a 
      nearby congested area. 
      14.  FLIGHTPARK DATA.  Once the ultralight flightpark is 
      activated by the operator and the FAA is notified, an Airport 
      Master Record (FAA Form 5010-2) is prepared by the FAA.  This is 
      a computerized record of data describing the flightpark's 
      facilities and services.  Each year, a copy of this Airport 
      Master Record is mailed to the flightpark operator with a request 
      to verify and update the data. The information collected by the 
      FAA is available upon request to Government agencies, aviation 
      organizations, aviation industries, and private individuals. 
      Future informational needs for ultralight flightpark directories, 
      charting, etc., can be supplied from computerized data summaries 
      derived from the Airport Master Record. 
      15. - 19. RESERVED. 
      20.  GENERAL.  The rapid growth and popularity of ultralight 
      vehicles and the increased number of operations require the 
      highest degree of vigilance on the part of ultralight operators 
      to see-and-avoid other ultralight vehicles and aircraft.  Some of 
      these operations involve authorization from air traffic control. 
      The purpose of this chapter is to assist the ultralight operator 
      in understanding the airspace, operations with air traffic 
      control, and the use of radio communications. 
      21.  AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) AND AIRSPACE.  Even though 
      ultralight vehicle operators are not required to demonstrate any 
      aeronautical knowledge or experience requirements, failure to 
      recognize and avoid certain airspace can be hazardous and may be 
      in violation of the Federal Aviation Regulations.  FAR 103.17 
      states that no person may operate an ultralight vehicle within an 
      Airport Traffic Area, Control Zone, Terminal Control Area or 
      Positive Control Area unless that person has prior authorization 
      from the air traffic control facility having jurisdiction over 
      the airspace.  The airspace areas requiring ATC authorization 
      that you, as an ultralight operator, are most likely to come in 
      contact with are the Airport Traffic Area, Control Zone and 
      Terminal Control Area. 
      22.  AIRSPACE AREAS. 
           a.   What is an Airport Traffic Area (ATA)?  An Airport 
      Traffic Area is airspace within a radius of 5 statute miles from 
      the center of an airport, with an operating control tower, that 
      extends upward from the surface to, but not including, an 
      altitude 3,000 feet above the elevation of an airport.  For the 
      purpose of ultralight operations, flight within the ATA requires 
      specific authorization from the air traffic control tower. 
      Although most ATA's are not depicted on charts, any airport 
      symbol on the sectional chart that is blue in color indicates the 
      presence of an air traffic control tower.  During the time that 
      tower is in operation, an ATA exists (see item h., Airspace and 
      the Chart). 
           b.   What is a Control Zone?  A Control Zone may include one 
      or more airports and is normally a circular area within a radius 
      of 5 statute miles around an airport.  The vertical limits of a 
      control zone begin at the surface and extend upward to 14,500 
      feet mean sea level (MSL).  Some control zones have rectangular 
      extensions to include the arrival and departure paths for pilots 
      operating primarily with reference to their aircraft instruments. 
      The entire area of a control zone is considered controlled 
      airspace, but not all airports have a control zone.  Where a 
      control zone exists, it is depicted on sectional charts by the 
      use of dashed lines.  For the purpose of ultralight operations, 
      flight within the control zone requires authorization from the 
      air traffic facility controlling that area. 
           c.   What is a Terminal Control Area (TCA)?  At the present 
      time there are 23 Terminal Control Areas.  TCA's are in place 
      around many of the high density airports in the country.  They 
      extend upward from the surface in the center and usually have 
      multiple rings of airspace which extend outward horizontally. 
      Its appearance closely resembles an inverted wedding cake, with 
      both lower and upper limits for each ring.  The presence of a TCA 
      is characterized on a sectional chart by blue outlines of the TCA 
      limits around a major airport.  All operations within the rings 
      of a TCA require authorization from air traffic control (see item 
      h., Airspace and the Chart). 
           d.   What is Positive Control Area (PCA)?  Positive Control 
      Area is the area which overlies the continental United States at 
      18,000 feet and above.  All operations conducted in PCA are done 
      so with the authority of air traffic control.  Aircraft operating 
      at these higher altitudes are required to carry additional radio 
      equipment and their pilots must be rated for instrument flight. 
      Although ultralights are not faced with specific equipment 
      requirements for entry into PCA, ATC authorization is required. 
      Requests for such flights will be thoroughly reviewed prior to 
      any decision to authorize operations in PCA by an ultralight. 
           e.   How Do I Get ATC Authorization?  Requests for 
      authorization to operate an ultralight vehicle into one of the 
      above named areas should be made by writing, telephoning, or 
      visiting the air traffic control facility having jurisdiction 
      over the airspace in which you wish to operate.  Requests for 
      such authorization via air traffic control radio communication 
      frequencies will normally not be accepted, since it may interfere 
      with the separation of aircraft. 
           f.   What is Uncontrolled Airspace?  Uncontrolled airspace 
      is the area in which air traffic control separation services are 
      not provided.  This area is usually below 1,200 feet above ground 
      level (AGL).  When nearing airports with established instrument 
      approaches, the ceiling of uncontrolled airspace usually lowers 
      to 700 feet AGL, and, if a control zone exists, uncontrolled 
      airspace remains outside of the control zone horizontal limits, 
      thus putting the airport within controlled airspace.  In some 
      geographic areas, primarily west of the Mississippi River, 
      uncontrolled airspace ceilings are above 1,200 feet AGL.  This is 
      an exception, rather than the rule.  The ceiling of uncontrolled 
      airspace may be determined by reference to Sectional Aeronautical 
      Charts used for aviation (see item h., Airspace and the Chart). 
           g.   What is Controlled Airspace?  Controlled airspace is 
      the area in which air traffic control separation services are 
      available for aircraft.  The base of controlled airspace usually 
      begins at 1,200 feet AGL and extends upward.  When nearing 
      airports with established instrument approaches the base of 
      controlled airspace usually lowers to 700 feet AGL, and, if a 
      control zone exists, the base of controlled airspace begins at 
      the surface within the horizontal limits of the control zone. 
      (See Item h. Airspace and the Chart) 
           h.   Airspace and the Chart.  Sectional Aeronautical Charts, 
      often called "sectionals", are published by the National Oceanic 
      and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and are revised on a semi- 
      annual basis.  Sectionals depict information for the use of 
      pilots who are operating with visual reference to the earth's 
      surface.  Each sectional has a legend printed on its endflap.  Of 
      particular interest to the ultralight operator, is the portion 
      entitled "Airport Traffic Service and Airspace Information." 
      This portion of the legend gives information which will enable 
      you to locate the floor of controlled airspace, prohibited and 
      restricted areas, TCA's, control zones, tower controlled 
      airports, obstructions, and other useful information.  Sectional 
      charts may be purchased from local airport operators, user 
      organizations, and directly from the NOAA, Washington, D.C. 
      Assistance in learning how to use sectional charts should be 
      readily available from any FAA-certificated flight or ground 
           i.   Special Military Activity. 
                (1)  There are special routes, known as Military 
      Training Routes (MTR's), which have been developed across the 
      country for military training in "low level" combat tactics. 
      Generally, MTR's are established below 10,000 feet MSL for 
      operations at speeds in excess of 250 knots and will include 
      operations by both fighter and cargo type aircraft.  The routes 
      at 1,500 feet AGL and below are developed primarily to be flown 
      in visual weather conditions.  The sectional charts depict 
      regularly established MTR's as shaded gray lines with an 
      associated VR or IR numbered identifier.   Nonparticipating 
      flights are not prohibited from flying within an MTR, but extra 
      caution to see-and-avoid these operations is imperative in 
      attaining the greatest practical level of safety.  Ultralight 
      pilots and flightpark operators should contact the nearest Flight 
      Service Station (FSS) to obtain information on the route usage in 
      their vicinity.  Information available includes times of 
      scheduled activity, altitudes in use, and actual route width. 
      Route width varies for each MTR and can extend several miles on 
      either side of the line depicted on sectional charts. 
           (2)  Also, throughout the year, the military conducts 
      special operations which may be held on a one-time basis in a 
      specific geographical location.  Information pertaining to such 
      operations is usually available through the FSS system.  When 
      requesting MTR and special activity information, ultralight 
      operators should give the FSS their area of intended operation 
      and permit the FSS specialist to identify the MTR routes and 
      special activities which could be a factor.  Information on FSS's 
      may be found in paragraph 42(a). 
           a.   Since the speed and operating characteristics of an 
      ultralight vehicle may be incompatible with many aircraft, it is 
      essential that you stay alert by looking for and avoiding other 
      traffic.  Be especially aware of the possibility that a faster 
      craft might overtake your ultralight.  Ultralight operators 
      should be especially vigilant for aircraft operating around an 
      airport.  Traffic pattern altitudes for propeller driven aircraft 
      generally extend from 600 to 1500 feet above the ground and 
      aircraft are often at these altitudes within 5 miles of the 
      airport.  Also, because of the possible effects of wake 
      turbulence, operations in close proximity to aircraft of greater 
      speed and weight should be avoided. 
           b.   Preparatory to landing at an uncontrolled airport, the 
      pilot should be concerned with landing direction indications on 
      the airport.  Such indicators include wind socks, wind tees, 
      tetrahedrons, traffic pattern indicators, and the direction of 
      other fixed-wing operations. 
           c.   Wind socks operate freely and are subject to the forces 
      of wind for direction.  Wind tees may move freely or be aligned 
      manually indicating the preferred landing direction.  A 
      tetrahedron is a large kite-shaped indicator sometimes located 
      beside the runway and may move freely or be set manually.  The 
      small end of the tetrahedron points in the preferred direction of 
           d.   Many airports have standardized traffic patterns which 
      rely on all turns in the pattern being made to the left.  Traffic 
      pattern indicators are used when there is a variation from the 
      normal left traffic pattern.  They are located either in a 
      segmented circle with the wind sock or tetrahedron, or may be 
      located near the end of the applicable runway.  If the pilot will 
      mentally enlarge the indicator for the runway to be used, the 
      direction of turns will become readily apparent.  Airports which 
      have parallel runways may have both left and right traffic 
      patterns operating at the same time. 
           e.   Also, some airports may have a specific area designated 
      for ultralight operations.  Look for any indications that 
      landings are to be made on other than the main runway and adjust 
      your flight path so as to not conflict with operations to the 
      main runway. 
           f.   Regardless of wind indicators or traffic patterns, it 
      is wise to scan the airport surface and the surrounding airspace 
      for flights that may be operating in a different manner.  The 
      governing factor as to which runway is in use is the direction 
      and strength of the wind.  It is the responsibility of pilots to 
      determine the safe landing direction for their craft.  The 
      indicators are there to assist you in operating safely, but they 
      are not meant to be a substitute for careful vigilance and good 
                  Application of Traffic Pattern Indicators 
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDED 
      operating into or out of an airport with a control tower expect 
      to be segregated from all nonultralight aircraft in the traffic 
      pattern, in the use of runways, and on the airport surface. 
      Please take special notice of the word "segregate."  FAA air 
      traffic controllers have been advised to authorize ultralight 
      operations only if they will not interfere with and can be kept 
      relatively clear of normal aircraft operations.  Certificated 
      aircraft receive separation services.  These will not be 
      available to ultralight pilots.  Rather, ultralight pilots will 
      be expected to separate themselves from each other and also to 
      remain clear of all normal aircraft operations.  When requesting 
      to operate at a tower controlled airport, or within the airport 
      traffic area, expect the controllers to provide you instructions 
      as to what areas to avoid.  These instructions may include route 
      and altitude information as well as a specified landing area. 
      Specific times during which to operate may also be authorized. 
      For operators equipped with two-way radios, see paragraph 25.  It 
      is important that ultralight operators understand the 
      responsibility for avoiding a conflict with aircraft and other 
      ultralights is theirs, and theirs alone. 
      25.  USE OF A TWO-WAY RADIO.  The following information provides 
      guidelines for the use of a two-way radio while operating an 
           a.   Communications with Air Traffic Control.  In all radio 
      communications with air traffic control, ultralight operators 
      should state the word "ultralight" followed by the call letters 
      assigned by the F.C.C. on your radio license, i.e., "Ultralight 
      12593U."  Use of the following radio communication practices will 
      result in the controller having a better understanding of your 
      request and enhance the safety of your flight. 
                (1)  Determine the correct frequency from a Sectional 
      Aeronautical Chart. 
                (2)  Contact the air traffic control tower prior to 
      entering the area for which you are requesting authorization. 
                (3)  Speak slowly and distinctly.  If you do not get an 
      immediate reply, wait a few moments, then repeat your request. 
      The controller may be busy and you may not be hearing all of the 
      transmissions the controller is hearing. 
                (4)  State the facility you are calling, your 
      ultralight identification, altitude, and location relative to the 
      airport.  Example:  "Sample Tower, Ultralight 12593U Six Miles 
      Southwest at 1,000 feet."  If you are on the ground at the 
      airport, give your position on the airport. 
                (5)  Wait for the tower to respond before stating any 
      further information. 

                (6)  Once two-way communications are established, 
      briefly state your request. 
                (7)  Keep in mind at all times your responsibility to 
      remain clear of all other aircraft and ultralights.  Further, 
      remember your responsibility to remain clear of any area for 
      which an authorization is required, but has not been received. 
                (8)  On occasion, air traffic control will deny 
      authorization to operate in a specific area.  This is not unique 
      to ultralights.  At times, certificated pilots in sophisticated 
      aircraft are also denied access to certain areas.  Factors 
      affecting authorization are the nature of the requested 
      operation, the effect on other operations that may already be 
      taking place, controller workload, and equipment or facility 
      limitations.  The ultimate reason remains the same...SAFETY. 
           b.   Communications at Uncontrolled Airports. 
                (1)  An uncontrolled airport is an airport without a 
      control tower or where the control tower is not currently in 
      operation.  This does not mean that two-way communications are 
      not used.  Quite the contrary.  A considerable amount of useful 
      information is passed back and forth among pilots and the 
      operators of airport advisory frequencies.  Information such as 
      runway in use, surface winds, other aircraft known to be in the 
      area, and any unusual activities, such as parachuting, may be 
                (2)  There are three primary ways for ultralight 
      operators, who are radio equipped, to communicate their 
      intentions and obtain airport/traffic information when operating 
      at a landing area that does not have an operating control tower: 
                     (i)  by communicating with an FAA flight service 
      station located on the airport; 
                    (ii)  by communicating with a local airport 
      advisory operator located at the airport; or 
                   (iii)  by making self-announce broadcasts of 
      intentions over a commonly used frequency for operations at that 
                (3)  The key to communicating at uncontrolled airports 
      is selection of the correct Common Traffic Advisory Frequency 
      (CTAF).  A more detailed explanation of CTAF and traffic advisory 
      practices and good operating procedures can be found in FAA 
      Advisory Circular 90-42C and the Airman's Information Manual. 
      Additionally, the Airport/Facility Directory provides information 
      on which frequency to use at a particular airport. 
           c.   Traffic Advisory Practices at Uncontrolled Airports. 
      In all radio communications, ultralight operators should state 
      the word "ultralight" followed by the call letters assigned by 
      the F.C.C. on your radio license, i.e., "Ultralight 12593U". 
                (1)  Select the correct frequency, many of which can be 
      found on Sectional Aeronautical Charts. 
                (2)  Contact the airport advisory service prior to 
      entering the area or departing the airport. 
                (3)  Speak slowly and distinctly.  If you do not get an 
      immediate reply, wait a few moments and repeat your request. 
      Please note that pilots announcing their departure are not 
      normally acknowledged. 
                (4)  State the facility or airport you are calling, 
      your ultralight identification, your location relative to the 
      airport, and your intended operation.  Example: "Leesburg, 
      Ultralight 12593U is 5 Miles North, Landing." 
                (5)  If you still do not get a reply, proceed 
      cautiously toward the airport.  If departing the airport, be 
      careful to visually clear the area in all directions prior to 
      entering the takeoff area.  Remain on the proper radio frequency 
      and listen for any aircraft which may be in the area. 
                (6)  Once you have completed your landing or have 
      exited the area, it is good practice to let other aviators know 
      that you are no longer airborne in the vicinity of the airport. 
      Example: "Leesburg, Ultralight 12593U is Clear of the Runway" or 
      "Leesburg, Ultralight 12593U is 2 Miles South, Leaving the Area". 
      26. - 29. RESERVED. 
                       CHAPTER 3.  WEATHER INFORMATION 
      The desire to leave the ground and explore the world from the air 
      has inevitably tied you to weather and its effect upon you.  No 
      pilot, amateur or professional, can safely attempt a flight 
      without considering the present and expected weather conditions. 
      Weather is a factor in most aviation accidents.  It cannot be 
      emphasized too strongly that if you are to continue to operate 
      safely, it is essential to know and understand the environment in 
      which you are flying. 
      Individual pilot weather briefings from FAA flight service 
      stations are provided to pilots on a "first come, first served" 
      basis.  The number of briefers available today is insufficient to 
      meet user demands without the prospect of considerable delays. 
      The FAA is taking steps to remedy this.  An automated system 
      currently under development is designed to accommodate direct 
      user access and will be able to provide increased services. 
      Until that system is operational, the present FAA flight service 
      system may not be able to accommodate all the needs of ultralight 
      30.  SOURCES OF WEATHER INFORMATION  Many sources of weather data 
      are available to aviators.  The following sources will assist you 
      in acquiring and evaluating as much weather data as possible. 
           a.   National weather is broadcast weekdays in a live 15 
      minute television program called AM Weather.  The program is 
      carried by about 250 public broadcast stations in the early 
      morning.  This program features meteorologists from the National 
      Weather Service and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, 
      and Information Service (NESDIS).   They use the latest guidance 
      and data available to produce a thorough program.  The program's 
      surface and forecast maps, satellite imagery, radar maps, and 
      upper air charts, along with the hazardous weather watches, are 
      ideal for acquiring broad scale weather information.  Consult 
      your local television schedules to obtain time of broadcast in 
      your area. 
           b.   Many cable TV systems now include 24 hour weather 
      channels.  Some of the programs include aviation weather. 
           c.   Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEB) for aviation are 
      made on numerous FAA VHF omni-directional ranges (VOR), 
      nondirectional radio beacons (NDB's), and at selected airports 
      that provide automatic terminal information services (ATIS). 
      These transcribed broadcasts are continuously updated during 
      their hours of operation. 
           d.   Broadcasts over radio beacons are made in the range of 
      200-400 KHz and can be received on relatively inexpensive radio 
      receivers.  VOR and ATIS broadcasts are made on VHF aviation 
      radio frequencies between 108-136 MHz.  There are many moderately 
      priced radios available that will receive these frequencies. 
           e.   The content of TWEB and ATIS broadcast in some cities 
      can be received over the telephone.  The telephone numbers to use 
      can be found in the telephone directory under United States 
      Government, Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation 
      Administration.  TWEB recordings will be listed under Flight 
      Service Station and ATIS recordings will be listed under Air 
      Traffic Control Tower. 
           f.   On nondirectioal radio beacons and selected VHF omni- 
      directional ranges (VOR's), the broadcasts may include synopsis, 
      adverse conditions, route forecasts, outlook, winds aloft 
      forecasts, radar reports, surface weather report, etc. 
           g.   Broadcasts on other VOR's may include only surface 
      weather reports, terminal (airport) forecast for the local 
      airport, adverse conditions, etc. 
           h.   ATIS broadcasts may include local ceiling, visibility, 
      obstructions to vision, temperature, wind direction (magnetic) 
      and speed, altimeter setting, etc.  The information is applicable 
      only to the airport located at the ATIS site, but it may be used 
      in evaluating the trend of existing weather. 
           i.   All the above facilities and their frequencies may be 
      identified by studying sectional aeronautical charts that are 
      sold at many airports.  Much of the same information is found in 
      the U.S. Government Flight Information Publication, 
      Airport/Facility Directory.  Comprehensive explanations of all 
      these services are printed in the FAA Airman's Information Manual 
      (AIM).  The publication is available through the U.S. Government 
      Printing Office.  Other excellent sources to find out frequencies 
      and what is available, are pilots handbooks published by user 
           j.   In most large metropolitan areas, the National Weather 
      Service provides continuous broadcasts of local weather 
      conditions on two frequencies that can be received by inexpensive 
      radios available at many retail outlets. 
           k.   Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service 
      (PATWAS) is available in most large metropolitan locations.  This 
      is a telephone recording of local and route weather information 
      that can be obtained by dialing a telephone number found under 
      the same heading in the phone book as listed above for TWEB. 
           l.   If you live in the Washington, D.C., or Columbus, Ohio, 
      areas, you should become familiar with the voice response system 
      (VRS) installed at these locations. This is a computer based test 
      system that provides weather data over the telephone.  The user 
      needs only to have a "TOUCHTONE" phone to access the system. 
      Since this is a test system, the products available may vary. 
      The latest information available and directions on using this 
      system can be obtained by sending a stamped self-addressed 
      envelope to: 
                  Voice Response System 
                  ACT 110 
                  Atlantic City, N.J. 08405 
           m.   These many sources of weather data are only part of a 
      safe weather operation.  Other factors include a knowledge of how 
      to interpret the weather data correctly, and when to exercise 
      good judgment and not fly.  There are many Government and civil 
      sources that supply educational material on weather and user 
      organizations are developing courses aimed at improving the 
      ultralight operator's understanding of weather.  One of the best 
      efforts ultralight operators can make in their own behalf is to 
      find out about weather.  Many members of the aviation community 
      have learned that weather, above all other aspects of our 
      environment, is irreverent of even the most experienced aviator. 
      31.  MICRO-METEOROLOGY.  While the list of available weather 
      information is impressive, it may not provide the ultralight 
      operator with the actual weather and wind conditions at the 
      operating site.  One of the most critical factors in conducting a 
      safe takeoff and landing is accurate information of the wind 
      conditions on the surface.  There may be many indications of what 
      the wind conditions are at the flying site.  The information 
      provided herein is designed to assist you in understanding and 
      using those indicators. 
           a.   Wind Direction.  One of the best indicators of wind 
      direction near the surface is derived by the use of a windsock or 
      wind streamers.  The direction of the wind is clearly indicated, 
      as is the velocity.  Because ultralight vehicles are very 
      susceptible to wind, we recommend that several windsocks or 
      streamers be located around the landing site.  Another means of 
      learning the wind direction on the surface is from nearby ponds 
      or lakes.  The "glassy" or smooth water area along the shore 
      indicates the direction from which the wind is blowing.  The 
      further out into the body of water the glassy area protrudes, the 
      lower the wind velocity.  Be careful when using this method that 
      the shoreline is not subject to major obstructions such as high 
      trees or a steep, high bank.  Yet another indicator of wind 
      direction and velocity is the natural vegetation such as tall 
      grass, trees, and bushes.  Caution should be used here too, for 
      the trees themselves can cause the wind direction to change 
      significantly, see item c., Turbulence and Wind Shear.  Other 
      indicators of surface wind are smoke and blowing dust.  Learn to 
      use them all and learn to cross check the information of one 
      against the other.  They are inexpensive resources that may save 
      your life. 
           b.   Wind Gradient and Gusts.  Wind gradient is change in 
      the velocity of the wind with an increase/decrease in altitude. 
      Normally, wind velocities will increase as the altitude 
      increases.  Conversely, because of the drag effects of the earth, 
      winds may significantly decrease as you get closer to the ground. 
      If the winds decrease at a faster rate than can be accounted for 
      by pitch and thrust changes, the vehicle may enter a stall.  For 
      this reason, when descending or climbing in close proximity to 
      the ground, a safe margin of extra airspeed is recommended.  Also 
      affecting the ultralight vehicle are wind gusts.  The danger 
      inherent in gusting wind conditions is amplified during the 
      takeoff and landing phases of flight.  A sudden gust of wind 
      could lift the ultralight up quickly, only to abandon the pilot 
      20 feet above the ground.  The result is often a stall.  Another 
      effect of gusting winds is the effect on the airframe of the 
      vehicle.  Strong gusts could easily and quickly exceed the design 
      limits of the vehicle, especially if the pilot is performing a 
      maneuver which is already putting some "load" on the airframe. 
      The best advice for operating in gusting winds is to ask 
      yourself:  "Do I really need to be doing this?"  If you 
      absolutely, positively have to be there, fly gently and maintain 
      extra airspeed during the takeoff and landing.  Fly the vehicle 
      right down to the ground with a minimum landing flare, and, after 
      you've landed, ask yourself: "Do I really want to do that again?" 
           c.   Turbulence and Wind Shear.  The most critical altitudes 
      for micro-wind changes are between 30 and 75 feet above ground 
      level.  This depends, in part, on the nearness of the surrounding 
      obstructions such as large trees, buildings, and hills.  The 
      effect of these obstructions is often turbulence or a sudden 
      change in wind direction and velocity often referred to as wind 
      shear.  Turbulence can be especially dangerous in ultralights due 
      to their light weight.  Ground turbulence consists of vortices 
      and eddies, vertical blasts of air, and rotors (dust devils). 
      Turbulence is caused by winds moving across and around objects, 
      and by thermal heating of the earth's surface.  Wind shear can 
      result in a sudden reduction in the relative wind over the 
      vehicle's lifting surfaces.  When this happens, the vehicle may 
      very quickly enter a stall.  At low altitude it may be nearly 
      impossible to recover in the distance remaining to the ground. 
      Because of the effects turbulence and wind shear have on the 
      safety of ultralight the effects turbulence and wind shear have 
      on the safety of ultralight operations, it may be wise not to fly 
      ultralights in winds exceeding 15 mph.  And even then, there will 
      be some circumstances when 15 mph is too much.  Also, keep in 
      mind not only your own piloting skills, but the abilities of your 
      craft to handle a crosswind during takeoff and landing.  If you 
      are in doubt, err on the side of safety and leave the enjoyment 
      of flying for another time, perhaps another day. 
      32. - 39. RESERVED. 
           a.   The NTSB is the official Government investigator for 
      all transportation safety issues.  Its purpose is to impartially 
      analyze occurrences which may indicate a transportation safety 
      problem and to recommend corrective action.  The NTSB has decided 
      to investigate all fatal powered ultralight vehicle accidents and 
      other selected ultralight accidents and incidents which may 
      involve significant safety issues.  The Safety Board will also 
      investigate ultralight vehicle accidents impinging on civil 
      aircraft operations or on persons and property on the ground. 
      The Safety Board will review accident data and the safety efforts 
      of the aviation community in order to keep abreast of any 
      emerging safety problems and will be available to provide 
      technical assistance in remedying those problems. 
                (1)  Immediately attend to the medical and physical 
      needs of the situation.  Notify the local authorities if 
      assistance is needed. 
                (2)  Do not move or remove any debris associated with 
      the occurrence. 
                (3)  Write down as much as you can remember.  This will 
      be very helpful in accurately recalling the incident. 
                (4)  Notify, or have the local authorities notify, the 
      nearest NTSB Field Office.  This information can be found in the 
      local phone book under U.S. Government, National Transportation 
      Safety Board, or call your local FAA office and request the NTSB 
      telephone number. 
                (5)  If you are able, take photographs of the site, and 
      get the names and phone numbers of any witness. 
           b.   NTSB requests that you be very helpful in reporting 
      such incidents as this will give all of the owners/operators of 
      ultralights a chance to benefit from the knowledge gained during 
      the investigation.  The Safety Board investigation is fact- 
      finding in nature and will not be used to substantiate any 
      violation of Federal Aviation Regulations. 
           c.   Additionally, the FAA supports the goals of private 
      organizations and associations to provide technical and 
      operational assistance to the ultralight industry in enhancing 
      the reliability of the vehicles and the safety of the sport.  The 
      FAA encourages all participants in the sport of ultralight flying 
      to report any incident, accident, structural or mechanical 
      failure of an ultralight to the private organizations and 
      associations actively representing the sport. 
           a.   Airport district offices are located throughout the 
      country and serve a specific geographical area.  Their primary 
      purpose is to assist the aviation community and state and local 
      governments in the planning and development of landing 
      facilities.  Under FAR 103, ADO's would be your best source for 
      information pertaining to the establishment of a flightpark and 
      the environmental considerations associated with operations. 
           b.   For the phone number and location of the ADO serving 
      your area, consult your local phone directory under Department of 
      Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Airport District 
      Office of Regional Airport District Office. 
      42.  FAA AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL FACILITIES.  There are three major 
      types of air traffic control facilities with which you may come 
      in contact.  The following information should assist you in 
      determining which one to call. 
           a.   Flight Service Station (FSS).  The Flight Service 
      Station's primary function is to provide the pilot with preflight 
      weather briefings and also Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS) which have 
      information as to the status of airports and facilities; the 
      conduct of special activities (parachuting, airshows, military 
      exercises, etc.); and the presence of known temporary structures 
      such as a crane located near an airport.  For the ultralight 
      operator, FSS's can be a means of obtaining guidance on which FAA 
      facility could best be of assistance.  For the role FSS's play in 
      providing weather information to ultralight pilots, see Chapter 
           b.   Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT).  There are many air 
      traffic control towers located throughout the country.  Each 
      serves a particular airport and provides pilots with information 
      on the movement of other aircraft in and around the airport.  In 
      some circumstances, ATCT's have an approach control associated 
      with them which provides separation between aircraft over a wider 
      geographic area.  Under FAR 103, ATCT's would be your contact 
      point for operations in an airport traffic area.  In many 
      instances, operations at nearby airports with control zones may 
      also be coordinated through the nearest ATCT. 
           c.   Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC).  There are 20 
      ARTCC's located around the country.  Each one covers a very large 
      geographic area and provides radar separation services to 
      aircraft through the use of remote radar and radio communication 
      facilities.  In some areas, the ARTCC functions as an approach 
      control and has responsibility, under FAR 103, for providing 
      authorization for ultralight operations in a control zone.  Due 
      to the size and vast area of coverage of ARTCC's, it is better to 
      contact the FSS or ATCT nearest you for assistance in obtaining 
      required authorizations. 
           For the phone numbers and locations of the FSS, ATCT, or 
      ARTCC you wish to call, consult your local telephone directory 
      under Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation 
      Administration.  Each facility should be listed separately: 
      Flight Service Station; (airport name) Air Traffic Control Tower; 
      and Air Route Traffic Control Center. 
           a.   These offices are located throughout the country and 
      are staffed by Flight Standards personnel.  Their primary purpose 
      is to serve the general public and aviation industry on all 
      matters relating to the certification and operation of general 
      aviation aircraft.  These responsibilities include accident 
      prevention programs, general surveillance of operational safety, 
      and the enforcement of FAR.  Under FAR 103, GADO's are your best 
      source of information for items such as vehicle applicability, 
      hazardous operations, and operations over congested areas. 
      Should you desire, GADO's can also provide you guidance and 
      assistance in certificating your ultralight as an aircraft. 

           b.   For the location and phone number of your nearest GADO, 
      consult your local telephone directory under Department of 
      Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, General Aviation 
      District Office or Flight Standards District Office. 
      44.  PUBLICATIONS.  The Federal Government and the aviation 
      industry have devoted considerable energies to producing 
      informational and training publications which are invaluable to 
      pilots.  Listed below are some of the publications available from 
      the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
      Washington, D.C. 20402. 
      Other sources of useful information can be obtained through the 
      various organizations, manufacturers, and associations working 
      within the aviation community. 
           a.   Airman's Information Manual (AIM).  This manual 
      contains the basic fundamentals required for safe flight in the 
      U.S. National Airspace System.  It includes chapters on 
      navigation aids, airspace, air traffic control, flight safety, 
      and good operating practices.  It also includes a pilot- 
      controller glossary.  The AIM is issued every 112 days and the 
      annual subscription price is $17. 
           b.   Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.  This 
      handbook contains essential information used in training and 
      guiding pilots.  Subjects include the principals of flight, 
      airplane performance, flight instruments, basic weather, 
      navigation and charts, and excerpts from flight information 
      publications.  This handbook is one of the most complete sources 
      of aeronautical information available.  The current price is $10. 
      Listed below are some of the publications available from the FAA. 
           c.   Flight Standards Safety Pamphlets.  These pamphlets are 
      used in the General Aviation Accident Prevention Program and are 
      produced primarily to be distributed at accident prevention 
      seminars by GADO personnel.  Titles available include:  Density 
      Altitude, Weight and Balance, Propeller Operation and Care, and 
      Planning Your Takeoff.  There are many other subjects available. 
      Pamphlets may be obtained in reasonable number at no charge from 
      the FAA Accident Prevention Specialist assigned to your local 
           d.   FAA Advisory Circulars. 
                (1)  The FAA issues advisory circulars to assist and 
      inform the public on matters affecting aviation.  Advisory  
      circulars are issued in a numbered-subject system corresponding 
      to the subject areas of the FAR. 
                (2)  For example, this advisory is numbered AC 103-6 
      because it deals with information pertaining to FAR 103 
      operations.  There are more than 400 free advisory circulars 
      available.  Subjects which may be of interest to the ultralight 
      operator include: 
           AC 60-4A  Pilot's Spatial Disorientation 
           AC 90-23D Wake Turbulence 
           AC 90-42C Traffic Advisory Practices at Uncontrolled 
           AC 90-48B Pilot's Role in Collision Avoidance 
           AC 91-36B VFR Flight Near Noise Sensitive Areas 
                (3)  For a complete listing of all available advisory 
      circulars, send your request for the Advisory Circular Checklist, 
      AC 00-2 to: 
                U.S. Department of Transportation 
                Subsequent Distribution Unit, M-442.32 
                Washington, D.C. 20590 
      Please enclose a self-addressed mailing label to expedite the 
      processing of your request. 
      Additionally, the FAA publishes numerous other documents dealing 
      with a variety of subjects.  The Guide to Federal Aviation 
      Administration Publications lists the information available from 
      the FAA and also provides a list of civil aviation related 
      publications issued by other Federal agencies.  A free copy of 
      this guide is available from the address listed in paragraph d. 
           e.   Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD).  Issued every 8 
      weeks, the Airport/Facility Directory is a civil flight 
      information publication which contains a directory of all 
      airports, seaplane bases, and heliports open to the public. 
      Available from the National Ocean Service, NOAA Distribution 
      Branch, N/CG33, Riverdale, Maryland 20737, the directory includes 
      information on communication frequencies, navigational 
      facilities, and certain special notices such as curfews. 
      Directories are sold on a single copy or subscription basis and 
      cover a specific geographic area of the United States, Puerto 
      Rico, and the Virgin Islands. 
      /s/ B. KEITH POTTS 
          Acting Director, Air Traffic Service 

      Subpart A - General 
      103.1  Applicability. 
      103.3  Inspection requirements. 
      103.5  Waivers. 
      103.7  Certification and registration 
      Subpart B - Operating Rules 
      103.9   Hazardous operations. 
      103.11  Daylight operations. 
      103.13  Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 
      103.15  Operations over congested areas. 
      103.17  Operations in certain airspace. 
      103.19  Operations in prohibited or restricted areas. 
      103.21  Visual reference to the surface. 
      103.23  Flight visibility and cloud clearance requirements. 
           Authority:  Secs. 307, 313(a), 601(a), 602, and 603, Federal 
      Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1348, 1354(a), 1421(a), 1422, and 
      1423); sec. 6(c), Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 
      1655 (c) 
      Subpart A - General 
      Section 103.1 Applicability. 
           This part prescribes rules governing the operation of 
      ultralight vehicles in the United States.  For the purposes of 
      this part, an ultralight vehicle is a vehicle that: 
           (a)  Is used or intended to be used for manned operation in 
      the air by a single occupant; 
           (b)  Is used or intended to be used for recreation or sport 
      purposes only; 
           (c)  Does not have any U.S. or foreign airworthiness 
      certificate; and 
           (d)  If unpowered, weighs less than 155 pounds; or 
           (e)  If powered: 

           (1)  Weighs less than 254 pounds empty weight, excluding 
      floats and safety devices which are intended for deployment in a 
      potentially catastrophic situation; 
           (2)  Has a fuel capacity not exceeding 5 U.S. gallons; 
           (3)  Is not capable of more than 55 knots calibrated 
      airspeed at full power in level flight; and 
           (4)  Has a power-off stall speed which does not exceed 24 
      knots calibrated airspeed. 
      Section 103.3  Inspection requirements. 
           (a)  Any person operating an ultralight vehicle under this 
      part shall, upon request, allow the Administrator, or his 
      designee, to inspect the vehicle to determine the applicability 
      of this part. 
           (b)  The pilot or operator of an ultralight vehicle must, 
      upon request of the Administrator, furnish satisfactory evidence 
      that the vehicle is subject only to the provisions of this part. 
      Section 103.5  Waivers. 
           No person may conduct operations that require a deviation 
      from this part except under a written waiver issued by the 
      Section 103.7  Certification and registration. 
           (a)  Notwithstanding any other section pertaining to 
      certification of aircraft or their parts or equipment, ultralight 
      vehicles and their component parts and equipment are not required 
      to meet the airworthiness certification standards specified for 
      aircraft or to have certificates of airworthiness. 
           (b)  Notwithstanding any other section pertaining to airman 
      certification, operators of ultralight vehicles are not required 
      to meet any aeronautical knowledge, age, or experience 
      requirements to operate those vehicles or to have airman or 
      medical certificates. 
           (c)  Notwithstanding any other section pertaining to 
      registration and marking of aircraft, ultralight vehicles are not 
      required to be registered or to bear markings of any type. 

      Subpart B - Operating Rules 
      Section 103.9  Hazardous operations. 
           (a)  No person may operate any ultralight vehicle in a 
      manner that creates a hazard to other persons or property. 
           (b)  No person may allow an object to be dropped from an 
      ultralight vehicle if such action creates a hazard to other 
      persons or property. 
      Section 103.11  Daylight operations. 
           (a)  No person may operate an ultralight vehicle except 
      between the hours of sunrise and sunset. 
           (b)  Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, 
      ultralight vehicles may be operated during the twilight periods 
      30 minutes before official sunrise and 30 minutes after official 
      sunset or, in Alaska, during the period of civil twilight as 
      defined in the Air Almanac, if: 
           (1)  The vehicle is equipped with an operating anticollision 
      light visible for at least 3 statute miles; and 
           (2)  All operations are conducted in uncontrolled airspace. 
      Section 103.13  Operation near aircraft; Right-of-way rules. 
           (a)  Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall 
      maintain vigilance so as to see and avoid aircraft and shall 
      yield the right-of-way to all aircraft. 
           (b)  No person may operate an ultralight vehicle in a 
      manner that creates a collision hazard with respect to any 
           (c)  Powered ultralights shall yield the right-of-way to 
      unpowered ultralights. 
      Section 103.15  Operations over congested areas. 
           No person may operate an ultralight vehicle over any 
      congested area of a city, town, or settlement, or over any open 
      air assembly of persons. 
      Section 103.17  Operations in certain airspace. 
           No person may operate an ultralight vehicle within an 
      airport traffic area, control zone, terminal control area, or 
      positive control area unless that person has prior authorization 
      from the air traffic control facility having jurisdiction over 
      that airspace. 
      Section 103.19  Operations in prohibited or restricted areas. 
           No person may operate an ultralight vehicle in prohibited 
      or restricted areas unless that person has permission from the 
      using or controlling agency, as appropriate. 
      Section 103.21  Visual reference with the surface. 
           No person may operate an ultralight vehicle except by 
      visual reference with the surface. 
      Section 103.23  Flight visibility and cloud clearance 
           No person may operate an ultralight vehicle when the flight 
      visibility or distance from clouds is less than that in the 
      following table, as appropriate: 
                Flight altitudes         Minimum       Minimum distance 
                                         flight        from clouds 
                                         visibility 1 
      1,200 feet or less above the 
      surface regardless of MSL 
           (1)  Within controlled 
           airspace ...............           3        500 feet below, 
                                                       1,000 feet 
                                                       above, 2,000 
                                                       feet horizontal. 
           (2)  Outside controlled            1        Clear of clouds. 
           airspace ................ 
      More than 1,200 feet above the 
      surface but less than 10,000 
      feet MSL: 
           (1)  Within controlled             3        500 feet below, 
           airspace ................                   1,000 feet 
                                                       above, 2,000 
                                                       feet horizontal. 
           (2)  Outside controlled            1        500 feet below, 
           airspace .................                  1,000 feet 
                                                       above, 2,000 
      More than 1,200 feet above the          5        1,000 feet 
      surface and at or above 10,000                   below, 1,000 
      feet MSL.                                        above, 1 
                                                       statute mile 

Doc is REPLACED BY the following: 
Doc REPLACES the following: 
  Rule         Type    |   Rule         Type    |   Rule         Type 
------------ --------  | ------------ --------  | ------------ -------- 
103.1        FAR       | 103.9        FAR       | 103.13       FAR 
103.15       FAR       | 103.17       FAR       | 103.19       FAR 
103.20       FAR       | 157.1        FAR